01 Mar 2018 @ 6:40 AM 
 

Max Cooper – Emergence

 

Nature at the smallest scales is thought to be composed of something wave-like. Follow the max Cooper – Emergence for more information.

A variety of topics in physics such as crystallography, metallurgy, elasticity, magnetism, etc. References to “condensed” state can be traced to earlier sources. For example, in the introduction to his 1947 book Kinetic Theory of Liquids, Yakov Frenkel proposed that “The kinetic theory of liquids must accordingly be developed as a generalization and extension of the kinetic theory of solid bodies. One of the first studies of condensed states of matter was by English chemist Humphry Davy, in the first decades of the nineteenth century.

In 1823, Michael Faraday, then an assistant in Davy’s lab, successfully liquefied chlorine and went on to liquefy all known gaseous elements, except for nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen. By 1908, James Dewar and Heike Kamerlingh Onnes were successfully able to liquefy hydrogen and then newly discovered helium, respectively. Paul Drude in 1900 proposed the first theoretical model for a classical electron moving through a metallic solid. However, despite the success of Drude’s free electron model, it had one notable problem: it was unable to correctly explain the electronic contribution to the specific heat and magnetic properties of metals, and the temperature dependence of resistivity at low temperatures. In 1911, three years after helium was first liquefied, Onnes working at University of Leiden discovered superconductivity in mercury, when he observed the electrical resistivity of mercury to vanish at temperatures below a certain value. Drude’s classical model was augmented by Wolfgang Pauli, Arnold Sommerfeld, Felix Bloch and other physicists.

The mathematics of crystal structures developed by Auguste Bravais, Yevgraf Fyodorov and others was used to classify crystals by their symmetry group, and tables of crystal structures were the basis for the series International Tables of Crystallography, first published in 1935. In 1879, Edwin Herbert Hall working at the Johns Hopkins University discovered a voltage developing across conductors transverse to an electric current in the conductor and magnetic field perpendicular to the current. Magnetism as a property of matter has been known in China since 4000 BC. The first attempt at a microscopic description of magnetism was by Wilhelm Lenz and Ernst Ising through the Ising model that described magnetic materials as consisting of a periodic lattice of spins that collectively acquired magnetization. A magnet levitating over a superconducting material. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor. The Sommerfeld model and spin models for ferromagnetism illustrated the successful application of quantum mechanics to condensed matter problems in the 1930s.

However, there still were several unsolved problems, most notably the description of superconductivity and the Kondo effect. The quantum Hall effect: Components of the Hall resistivity as a function of the external magnetic field:fig. The study of phase transition and the critical behavior of observables, termed critical phenomena, was a major field of interest in the 1960s. The effect was observed to be independent of parameters such as system size and impurities. In 1981, theorist Robert Laughlin proposed a theory explaining the unanticipated precision of the integral plateau. Shortly after, in 1982, Horst Störmer and Daniel Tsui observed the fractional quantum Hall effect where the conductance was now a rational multiple of a constant.

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Last Edit: 01 Mar 2018 @ 06 40 AM

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